Hunger Games Read Online Epub Validator
Abstract:In this study, a new meta-heuristic optimization method inspired by the behavioral choices of animals and hunger-driven activities, called hunger games search (HGS), is suggested to solve and formulate the single- and multi-objective optimal power flow problem in power systems. The main aim of this study is to optimize the objective functions, which are total fuel cost of generator, active power losses in transmission lines, total emission issued by fossil-fueled thermal units, voltage deviation at PQ bus, and voltage stability index. The proposed HGS approach is optimal and easy, avoids stagnation in local optima, and can solve multi-constrained objectives. Various single-and multi-objective (conflicting) functions were proposed simultaneously to solve OPF problems. The proposed algorithm (HGS) was developed to solve the multi-objective function, called the multi-objective hunger game search (MOHGS), by incorporating the proposed optimization (HGS) with Pareto optimization. The fuzzy membership theory is the function responsible to extract the best compromise solution from non-dominated solutions. The crowding distance is the strategies carried out to determine and ordering the Pareto non-dominated set. Two standard tests (IEEE 30 bus and IEEE 57 bus systems) are the power systems that were applied to investigate the performance of the proposed approaches (HGS and MOHGS) for solving single and multiple objective functions with 25 studied cases using MATLAB software. The numerical results obtained by the proposed approaches (HGS and MOHGS) were compared to other optimization algorithms in the literature. The numerical results confirmed the efficiency and superiority of the proposed approaches by achieving an optimal solution and giving the faster convergence characteristics in single objective functions and extracting the best compromise solution and well-distributed Pareto front solutions in multi-objective functions.Keywords: multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF); hunger games search (HGS); multi-objective hunger games search (MOHGS); Pareto concept; fuzzy set theory; fuel cost; active power losses; emission; voltage deviation; voltage stability index
Hunger Games Read Online Epub Validator
As already highlighted above, diet quality is a critical link between food security and nutrition outcomes that needs to be present as part of all efforts to achieve the hunger, food security and nutrition targets of SDG 2. Meeting these targets will only be possible if we ensure that people have enough food to eat, and that what they are eating is nutritious. However, one of the biggest challenges to achieving this is the current cost and affordability of healthy diets, which is the focus of Part 2 of this report this year.
The increasing frequency of extreme weather events, altered environmental conditions, and the associated spread of pests and diseases over the last 15 years are factors that contribute to vicious circles of poverty and hunger, particularly when exacerbated by fragile institutions, conflicts, violence and the widespread displacement of populations.4,5,6,7 The number of displaced people in the world in 2018 was about 70 percent higher than in 2010, reaching some 70.8 million, mostly hosted by developing countries.2
This report presents projections (Figure 1) of what the extent of hunger in the world may be in 2030, if trends of the last decade, observed until late last year, were to continue (see Box 2 and Annexes 1B and 2). At the time of going to press (June 2020), the COVID-19 pandemic was spreading across the globe, clearly posing a serious threat to food security. There is no doubt the pandemic will expose more people to food insecurity and accelerate the projected increase in the number of hungry people, unless immediate actions are taken. As the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will persist is not known, both in terms of scope and severity, the projections provided here must be seen as preliminary.
Conflicts and instability are the primary drivers behind the rise in hunger seen in Western Asia. In particular, conflicts in Syrian Arab Republic and Yemen have increased undernourishment. In Yemen, the economic downturn following the conflict that began in 2015 has resulted in the destruction of social protection networks and basic services, contributing to critical conditions of food security and nutrition. In Syrian Arab Republic, the civil war that started in 2011 has destroyed the economy, infrastructures, agricultural production, food systems and social institutions. All of this is exacerbated by a large presence of internally displaced populations, which is also affecting neighbouring countries.
Given the high costs and the need to improve support for the poorest populations,309 many countries in the region, such as Algeria, Egypt, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Jordan, Tunisia and Yemen, have revised their subsidy programmes in recent years in favour of better-targeted mechanisms.310 This has resulted in elimination of many of the subsidies that were not well-aligned with healthy diets; nonetheless, some subsidies for oils, sugar and white flour or bread have persisted.311
Regulation of food marketing. Introducing measures on the marketing of energy-dense foods of minimal nutritional value to children should form part of comprehensive strategies directed at promoting healthy diets that include sustainability considerations.323 These foods include SSBs, pre-sugared cereals, confectionery, snacks and highly processed foods served in fast food restaurants.324 Children in particular are influenced by marketing strategies. Marketing and communication channels include TV, radio, the Internet, social media, online games, poster sites, magazines and newspapers, in addition to in-store displays and packaging, celebrity endorsements, sports sponsorship and price promotions. Since 2010, WHO has recommended that countries implement measures to reduce the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic drinks to children,321 and more than 40 countries now have such measures in place.243
They mistake who assert that the Yankee has few amusements, because he has notso many public holidays, and men and boys do not play so many games as they doin England, for here the more primitive but solitary amusements of huntingfishing and the like have not yet given place to the former. Almost every NewEngland boy among my contemporaries shouldered a fowling piece between the agesof ten and fourteen; and his hunting and fishing grounds were not limited, likethe preserves of an English nobleman, but were more boundless even than thoseof a savage. No wonder, then, that he did not oftener stay to play on thecommon. But already a change is taking place, owing, not to an increasedhumanity, but to an increased scarcity of game, for perhaps the hunter is thegreatest friend of the animals hunted, not excepting the Humane Society. 350c69d7ab