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The Quebec-Canada problem arises some ambigious and contradictory issues with Quebec itself being the source of the current facets of the crisis. Political geography is able to contribute to a greater understanding of the crisis by clearly demonstrating some of the classig concepts drawn from the discipline: geography of federalism, political viability and centrifugal forces, ethnic separatism, territorial integrity and linguistic territoriality, nationalism, and regionalism, territorial ideology, international frontiers... Evermore, Quebec appears to be the unique case of a national state. The gravitation of Canada's population towards the West has a direct impact upon the Quebec situation, with the eventual independence of the Province bringing about ipso facto a Pakistanisation of the country as a whole. Currently, one may observe an ever-widening lack of communication between Quebec and the rest of Canada. In order that Europeans (and many others) may fully understand the Quebec situation, a sort of mental debriefing must take place.
Political Geography Glassner Pdf 18
The Civil War represented a watershed moment in popular mapping, as newspapers published battle maps and Americans both north and south followed the progress of the war. Some of the first American maps to shade or color code the different states (i.e., choropleth maps) distinguished slave and free states, while the Lincoln administration closely studied maps detailing the distribution of slave populations in the South. The 1874 publication of the Statistical Atlas of the United States, charting data from the 1870 census, opened a new era of the American government using cartographic data in support of policymaking.18 This period also saw growing institutional commitment to the study and advancement of geography, as seen in the establishment of the American Geographical Society in 1851 and the National Geographic Society in 1888. It was also at this time, in 1878, that Harvard appointed its first geography professor.
Whether considering grand strategy, military capability, national cartographic consciousness, or individual spatial cognition, to exclude geographic content fails to make use of a valuable tool. Geographic expertise and resources are scattered widely and inconsistently across the national security enterprise, but many organizations have some sort of department that produces cartographic or geospatial products, often in conjunction with other graphic design services. That some parts of the government employ geography in their public messaging and others do not could reflect deliberate choices about the most appropriate or most effective ways to make an argument. More likely, however, is that the differences are the result of widely varying cartographic capabilities across the government, unevenly distributed geospatial resources, and long-unquestioned institutional processes.
The undersea domain has captured less attention in the popular press than space and cyberspace, but it is nevertheless a vital strategic domain that challenges the geographic thinking of national security leaders. In contrast to the cyber and space domains, shortfalls in thinking about undersea space derive more from disinterest and lack of imagination than technical or bureaucratic challenges. Anti-submarine warfare was a high priority in World War II, but submarine operations of that era were only partially an undersea contest. Competing for mastery of the undersea domain reached its height in the Cold War ocean surveillance networks and reliance on submarine-launched ballistic missiles for strategic deterrence. Such issues of military use of the undersea domain have become prominent again, but technology has also dramatically increased the commercial importance of the undersea environment. The overwhelming majority of global communication rides on seabed fiber-optic cables and the growing feasibility of extracting seabed resources requires an enhanced understanding of the undersea geography that determines competing claims and the accessibility of those resources. These challenges raise the importance of making national security leaders familiar with the shape and science of the undersea world. Those who develop and implement national strategy will have to become more spatially conversant in presenting and considering the strategic issues of the undersea domain.
Andrew Rhodes is a career civil servant who has served as an expert in Asia-Pacific affairs in a variety of analytic, advisory, and staff positions across the Department of Defense and the interagency. He earned a BA in political science from Davidson College, an MA in international relations from The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, and a certificate in Geographic Information Sciences from the University of North Dakota. He recently graduated with highest distinction from the U.S. Naval War College and is an affiliated scholar of the Naval War College China Maritime Studies Institute.
Geography is about power. Although often assumed to be innocent, the geography of the world is not a product of nature but a product of histories of struggle between competing authorities over the power to organize, occupy, and administer space. (Ó Tuathail, 1996a: 1)
Abstract: The formulation and development of geopolitical theory have profoundly imprinted the influence of maps. In the history of the development of geopolitics, different map projections not only serve different thinkers' theoretical formulation, but also penetrate into the dynamic revisions of their own theories in different periods. How exactly do map projections participate in the construction of geopolitical theories? Based on existing cartographic research of geopolitics, this article discusses the relationship between map projection and the construction of geopolitical theory by interpreting and communicating the spatial analysis with the discourse analysis in map functions, from these two basic attributes of maps, namely spatiality and textuality. On the one hand, the framework of mental map after a map projection deformation and abstraction provides the spatial support for constructing a geopolitical theory; on the other hand, the map projection gathers abundant layers of textuality through map distortion in complex contexts. Under the intertextualities (complementary narratives) among all layers of textuality in map projection, new map discourse can be generated and infiltrate into the mental map, which promotes the generation of core concepts and the construction of logical relations of geopolitical theory in a figurative way. Considering the influence of Mackinder's map view, in this paper, the explanatory power of the relationship framework is verified through making a perspective analysis from map projections on all stages (1904, 1919, 1943) of the change of Mackinder's Heartland geopolitical thought. This reveals the potential applicability of the analysis framework in other geopolitical theories researches. We are looking forward to the construction of China's geopolitical theory based on the intertextuality of the innovation of map projections in the complex contexts interweaved with the world experiencing a level of change unseen in a century and the strategic goal of achieving national rejuvenation and so on.
HE Guangqiang, LIU Yungang. Map projection and the construction of geopolitical theory: A cartographic perspective on Mackinder's geopolitical thought[J].Acta Geographica Sinica, 2022, 77(4): 818-834.